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During a debate, it is practically impossible not to ask such questions at any time about the author of the film, his intentions, his way of doing things, his responsibility or the meaning he is supposed to have. Given to his movie. However, the author never appears as such on the screen (with rare exceptions like those of the director Michael Moore putting himself on stage in his films like Bowling for Columbine or Fahrenheit 9/11 ) and does everything so rarely hear his voice (the narrator’s voiceovers are often those of an actor or a performer). From you can find the best Movies like these now.

How then can we discuss this “figure” most often invisible and inaudible and how can we lend it intentions or words that are necessarily external to the film itself?

It is not possible to answer all of these questions in a simple manner and one must be wary of overly obvious answers in this regard. In a situation of animation, it will undoubtedly be advisable to rather arouse doubt, while promoting dialogue between the participants. We will now indicate some lines of reflection to clarify these different points.

At. The director, historical figure

Very quickly after its invention (1895), cinema was considered not only as a technical curiosity or as entertainment but as an art, a new art with a singular aesthetic, different from that of the arts which had preceded it. But, if this artistic dimension was quickly recognized, the definition or the determination of its author and therefore of the artist was longer and more confrontational. Without wishing to summarize this complex history in a summary, we will nevertheless point out some essential dividing lines in a process which is not, moreover, completely finished.

The Differences

Although the differences between these two arts were immediately noticed, the comparison with the theater and more generally literature weighed for a long time on the reflection on cinema, especially when it began to adapt texts of literary origin (one of Melees’ most famous films, Le Voyage dams la Lune, was already taken in 1902 from an equally famous novel by Jules Verne, as one of the first great Italian films The Last Days of Pompeii Glia ultimo groin di Pompeii by Luigi Maggi is it in 1908 from a novel of the same name by Edward George Earl Bulwer-Lytton, and many other adaptations will follow such as La Reined Margot in 1909, La Dame aux camellias or Les Trios Mousquetaires in 1912, or the series of Fandoms from 1913).

  • However in the theater, until at least the end of the 19th century [19], the staging was considered secondary to the text in which the creative genius of the great writers, Racine, Molière or Hugo, was expressed. Aware of the specificity and the novelty of cinema, many will then refuse this subordinate position of the staging work and affirm that it is the director the real artist in this field: the very term of “director” will be ‘elsewhere rejected at certain times in favor of that of “filmmaker” (invented by Louis Della in 1920) or “director” (judged too vague by others, however).

The question is not, moreover, purely intellectual, and it brings into play the legal recognition of authors’ rights in the cinematographic field: from 1928, at a time when many still consider cinema as a distraction of little value, Abel Glance files a lawsuit against the distribution company which modified or “mutilated” without his authorization his film Napoleon, thus affirming its position of author of the film in the strong sense of the term.